A definition of terrorism and an overview of the use of terror

It allows for some optional curriculum on the fifth day to provide an additional one-half day or one full day of instruction, lengthening the class to 36 or 40 hours. The five-day TLO course has been in existence for more than three years and, in accordance with federal recommendations, was due for review. Also present were Office of Homeland Security officials, the current course presenters, and other state and federal stakeholders. The Committee recommended consolidating the five-day TLO basic course into a three-day core course, with additional flexible and complementary modules to address local needs.

A definition of terrorism and an overview of the use of terror

When economic, social, and political stability suddenly collapsed afterone of the most alarming results was terrorism. Initially, neofascist groups backed and armed by some members of the security services carried out most acts of violence. The Soviet Union and its allies allegedly engaged in widespread support of international terrorism during the Cold War; in the s the United States supported rebel groups in Africa that allegedly engaged in acts of terrorism, such as the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola UNITA ; and various Muslim countries e.

The military dictatorships in Chile —90 and Argentina —83 committed acts of state terrorism against their own populations.

The violent police states of Joseph Stalin in the Soviet Union and Saddam Hussein in Iraq are examples of countries in which one organ of the government—often either the executive branch or the intelligence establishment—engaged in widespread terror against not only the population but also other organs of the government, including the military.

The persistent element of all forms of establishment terrorism, unlike that of nonstate terrorism, is that of secrecy. States invariably seek to disavow their active complicity in such acts, both to evade international censure and to avoid political and military retribution by those they target.

- The Washington Post

History Terror has been practiced by state and nonstate actors throughout history and throughout the world. The ancient Greek historian Xenophon c. Roman emperors such as Tiberius reigned 14—37 ce and Caligula reigned 37—41 ce used banishment, expropriation of property, and execution as means to discourage opposition to their rule.

The most commonly cited example of early terror, however, is the activity of the Jewish Zealotsoften known as the Sicarii Hebrew: Likewise, the use of terror was openly advocated by Robespierre during the French Revolution, and the Spanish Inquisition used arbitrary arrest, tortureand execution to punish what it viewed as religious heresy.

After the American Civil War —65defiant Southerners formed the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate supporters of Reconstruction —77 and the newly freed former slaves.

In the latter half of the 19th century, terror was adopted in western Europe, Russia, and the United States by adherents of anarchismwho believed that the best way to effect revolutionary political and social change was to assassinate persons in positions of power.

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It became the hallmark of a number of political movements stretching from the extreme right to the extreme left of the political spectrum. Technological advances, such as automatic weapons and compact, electrically detonated explosives, gave terrorists a new mobility and lethality, and the growth of air travel provided new methods and opportunities.

Terrorism was virtually an official policy in totalitarian states such as those of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler and the Soviet Union under Stalin. In these states arrest, imprisonment, torture, and execution were carried out without legal guidance or restraints to create a climate of fear and to encourage adherence to the national ideology and the declared economic, social, and political goals of the state.

Terror has been used by one or both sides in anticolonial conflicts e. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries some of the most extreme and destructive organizations that engaged in terrorism possessed a fundamentalist religious ideology e.

The s witnessed some of the deadliest attacks on American soil, including the bombing of the World Trade Center in New York City in and the Oklahoma City bombing two years later, which killed people.

In addition, there were several major terrorist attacks on U. In an explosion triggered by suicide bombers caused the deaths of 17 sailors aboard a U.How many people have died from terrorism? This statistic shows the number of deaths due to terrorism worldwide In , more than 25, people died from terrorism.

schwenkreis.comll – Global Terrorism: An Overview and Analysis (Draft 09/11/02) Page 3 of 48 pursuit of political change.”3 Hoffman attempts to differentiate his definition of terrorism from criminal and lunatic violence by emphasizing the “altruistic” and “intellectual” qualities of terrorist motivation.

Agro-terrorism; Aircraft hijacking (); Animal-borne bomb attacks; Beheading; Bioterrorism; Car bombing (); Cyberterrorism; Dirty bomb; Dry run; Explosive; Hostage-taking.

The concept of terrorism may itself be controversial as it is often used by state authorities to delegitimize political or other opponents, and potentially legitimize the state’s own use of armed force against opponents (such use of force may itself be described as “terror” by opponents of the state.).

The History of Terrorism: From Antiquity to al Qæda [Gérard Chaliand, Arnaud Blin, Edward Schneider, Kathryn Pulver, Jesse Browner] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This authoritative work provides an essential perspective on terrorism by offering a rare opportunity for analysis and reflection at a time of ongoing violence.

1. The conceptual issue.

A definition of terrorism and an overview of the use of terror

The history of terrorism is probably coextensive with the history of political violence. The term “terrorism”, however, is relatively recent: it has been in use since late 18th century.

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