Autism, developmental delays, and chronic illnesses including allergies and asthma are at an all-time high, affecting 1 in 6 children across the US. Genetic studies have failed to turn up genes responsible for allergies, asthma, autism, or ADHD, yet funding for research identifying environmental causes pales in comparison to funding for genetic studies.
Hierarchical structure of the similarity between bodily topographies associated with emotion words in experiment 1 Upper and basic emotions across experiments with word Wstory Smovie Mand Face F stimuli Lower. We controlled for linguistic confounds of figurative language associated with emotions e.
To test whether the emotional bodily sensations reflect culturally universal sensation patterns vs. East Asian and speak a language belonging to a family of languages distant from Finnish Taiwanese Hokkien: When people recall bodily sensations associated with emotion categories described by words, they could just report stereotypes of bodily responses associated with emotions.
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To control for this possibility, we directly induced emotions in participants using two of the most powerful emotion induction techniques 1011 —guided mental imagery based on reading short stories experiment 2 and viewing of movies experiment 3 —and asked them to report their bodily sensations online during the emotion induction.
We carefully controlled that emotion categories or specific bodily sensations were not directly mentioned in the stories or movies, and actual emotional content of the stories Fig. S1 was evaluated by another group of 72 subjects see ref.
BSMs were similar to those obtained in experiment 1 with emotion words Figs. The BSMs were also highly concordant across emotion-induction conditions stories vs. We tested this hypothesis in experiment 4 by presenting participants with pictures of six basic facial expressions without telling them what emotions if any the faces reflected and asking them to color BSMs for the persons shown in the pictures, rather than the sensations that viewing the expressions caused in themselves.
Again, statistically separable BSMs were observed for the emotions Fig.
If discrete emotional states were associated with distinct patterns of experienced bodily sensations, then one would expect that observers could also recognize emotions from the BSMs of others. In experiment 5, we presented 87 independent participants the BSMs of each basic emotion from experiment 1 in a paper-and pencil forced-choice recognition test.
Finally, we constructed a similarity matrix spanning the BSMs of experiments 1—4 for the six basic emotions plus the neutral emotional state Fig.
Even though there were significant correlations across mismatching emotions across the experiments e. Clustering of the similarity matrix revealed a clear hierarchical structure in the data Fig. Sadness, disgust, fear, and neutral emotional state separated early on as their own clusters.
Anger topographies in the word and face experiments clustered together, whereas those in the story experiments were initially combined with disgust. Two categories of surprise maps were clustered together, whereas the maps obtained in the word data were linked with disgust.
Only happiness did not result in clear clustering across the experiments.
Discussion Altogether our results reveal distinct BSMs associated with both basic and complex emotions. These maps constitute the most accurate description available to date of subjective emotion-related bodily sensations.
Our data highlight that consistent patterns of bodily sensations are associated with each of the six basic emotions, and that these sensations are represented in a categorical manner in the body.
The distinct BSMs are in line with the evidence from brain imaging and behavioral studies, highlighting categorical structure of emotion systems and neural circuits supporting emotional processing 1516 and suggest that information regarding different emotions is also represented in embodied somatotopic format.
The discernible sensation patterns associated with each emotion correspond well with the major changes in physiological functions associated with different emotions Most basic emotions were associated with sensations of elevated activity in the upper chest area, likely corresponding to changes in breathing and heart rate 1.
Similarly, sensations in the head area were shared across all emotions, reflecting probably both physiological changes in the facial area i. Sensations in the upper limbs were most prominent in approach-oriented emotions, anger and happiness, whereas sensations of decreased limb activity were a defining feature of sadness.
Sensations in the digestive system and around the throat region were mainly found in disgust. In contrast with all of the other emotions, happiness was associated with enhanced sensations all over the body.
The nonbasic emotions showed a much smaller degree of bodily sensations and spatial independence, with the exception of a high degree of similarity across the emotional states of fear and sadness, and their respective prolonged, clinical variants of anxiety and depression.
All cultures have body-related expressions for describing emotional states. Many of these e. It is thus possible that our findings reflect a purely conceptual association between semantic knowledge of language-based stereotypes associating emotions with bodily sensations When activated, such a conceptual link—rather than actual underlying physiological changes—could thus guide the individual in constructing a mental representation of the associated bodily sensations 9.
However, we do not subscribe to this argument. First, all four types of verbal and nonverbal stimuli brought about concordant BSMs, suggesting that the emotion semantics and stereotypes played a minor role. Second, consistent BSMs were obtained when participants were asked to report their actual online bodily sensations during actual emotions induced by viewing movies or reading stories the emotional categories of which were not indicatedthus ruling out high-level cognitive inferences and stereotypes.
Third, a validation study with participants speaking Swedish—a language distant from Finnish—replicated the original findings, suggesting that linguistic confounds such as figurative language associated with the emotions cannot explain the findings.
Thus, BSMs likely reflect universal sensation patterns triggered by activation of the emotion systems, rather than culturally specific conceptual predictions and associations between emotional semantics and bodily sensation patterns. Despite these considerations, the present study cannot completely rule out the possibility that the BSMs could nevertheless reflect conceptual associations between emotions and bodily sensations, which are independent of the culture.
However, where then do these conceptual associations originate and why are they so similar across people with very different cultural and linguistic backgrounds?- 7 insights into the imbedded commands and behavioral triggers that the most powerful direct-response advertising, copy themes and offers connect to, at a primal level — that I take care to place in every pitch or presentation I craft.
To obtain high experimental control, the emotional stimuli consisted of computer-generated morphs of coloured static pictures, with a build-up of emotional expressions appearing . “Emotional intelligence” has become a major topic of interest in scientific circles as well as in the lay public since the publication of a bestseller by the same name in (Goleman).
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Emotional Response to Computer Generated Special Effects:Realism Revisited The art of visual effects in motion pictures is an art of illusion. For over years, film audiences have experienced cinematic illusions, some more believable than others.
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