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Sign up for free to view: To define the following: To list at least four different stimuli capable of generating an action potential. To list at least two agents capable of inhibiting an action potential. To describe the relationship between nerve size and conduction velocity. To describe the relationship between nerve myelination and conduction velocity.
In the resting neuron i. This difference in electrical charge across the plasma membrane is referred to as the resting membrane potential and the membrane is said to be polarized. The sodium-potassium pump in the membrane maintains the difference in electrical charge established by diffusion of ions.
This active transport mechanism moves 3 sodium ions out of the cell while moving in 2 potassium ions. Therefore, the major cation outside of the cell in the extracellular fluid is sodium, while the major cation inside of the cell is potassium. The inner surface of the cell membrane is more negative than the outer surface, mainly due to intracellular proteins, which, at body pH, tend to be negatively charged.
The resting membrane potential can be measured with a voltmeter by putting a recording electrode just inside of the cell membrane with a reference, or ground, electrode outside of the membrane.
In the giant squid axon, where most early neural research was conductedor in the frog axon that will be used in this exercise, the resting membrane potential is measured at —70 mv. In humans, the resting membrane potential typically measures between mv to mv. When a neuron is activated by a stimulus of adequate intensity, known as a threshold stimulus, the membrane at its trigger zone, typically the axon hillock, briefly becomes more permeable to sodium ions sodium gates in the cell membrane open.
Sodium ions rush into the cell, increasing the number of positive ions inside of the cell and changing the membrane polarity. The interior surface of the membrane becomes less negative and the exterior surface becomes less positive, a phenomenon called depolarization.
When depolarization reaches a certain called threshold, an action potential is initiated and the polarity of the membrane reverses. When the membrane depolarizes, the resting membrane potential of mv becomes less negative. When the membrane potential reaches 0 mv, indicating there is no charge difference across the membrane, the sodium ion channels close and potassium ion channels open.Feb 27, · Analysis of Soda Ash and Carbonate-Bicarbonate Mixture Submitted: February 27, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Santo Tomas España, Manila Abstract A standard acid solution like HCl can be used as titrant for the analysis of both soda ash and a carbonate-bicarbonate mixture.
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