The modern city Constantinople occupies one of the most beautiful and advantageous sites in the world, uniting as it does Europe with Asia and putting in communication the Black Sea and all Southern Russia with the greater part of Europe and Asiaand even with distant America. It is surrounded by water on all sides except the west, which is protected by walls. Its sea front is about eight miles in length. The air is generally pure, and the climate very temperate.
Prehistory[ edit ] Humans have lived in the area now known as Istanbul since at least the Neolithic period. Lygos[ edit ] The first name of the city was Lygos  according to Pliny the Elder in his historical accounts.
It was founded by Thracian tribes between the 13th and 11th centuries BC, along with the neighbouring fishing village of Semistra,  Only a few walls and substructures belonging to Lygos have survived to date, near the Seraglio Point Turkish: Lygos and Semistra were the only settlements on the European side of Istanbul.
On the Asian side there was a Phoenician colony. On the site of Lygos, the later Byzantium was located, thus Lygos is accepted as the city which gave rise to Istanbul.
The name is believed to be of Thracian or Illyrian origin and thus to predate the Greek settlement. After siding with Pescennius Niger against the victorious Septimius Severus the city was besieged by Rome and suffered extensive damage in AD Byzantium was rebuilt by the Roman Emperor Septimius Severus and quickly regained its previous prosperity, being temporarily renamed as Augusta Antonina by the emperor, in honor of his son.
Byzantium now renamed as Nova Roma which eventually became Constantinopolis, i. The City of Constantine was officially proclaimed the new capital of the Roman Empire in Following the death of Theodosius I in and the permanent partition of the Roman Empire between his two sons, Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Byzantine Empire.
The combination of imperialism and location would play an important role as the crossing point between two continents Europe and Asiaand later a magnet for Africa and others as well, in terms of commerceculturediplomacyand strategy.
It was the center of the Greek world and for most of the Byzantine period, the largest city in Europe. The territory was officially split in when Theodosius I ruled, died leaving his son Arcadius emperor of the eastern half of the empire and his other son Honorius emperor of the western half.
According to historians this flourishing Eastern Roman Empire was then classified as the Byzantine Empire to distinguish it from the Roman Empire.
The seat of the Patriarch of Constantinoplespiritual leader of the Eastern Orthodox Churchremains. The most famous Byzantine emperor was Justinian During his reign he extended the Byzantine Empire to its largest boundaries spreading from Palestine to the tip of Spain.
His other achievements include the famous Hagia Sophia church and the organized law system called the Codex which was completed in Alliance with Europe slowly began to break away from the Byzantine Empire between the seventh-eighth centuries when the Byzantine and Roman churches disagreed on various subjects.
However, the distinguishing gap placed between the two churches involved the use of icons in the church. The destruction of icons reorganized and reoriented the Byzantine rulers in imperial power.
The papacy was unwilling to permit sacred images and icons to be destroyed and this caused eventual separation. From around the 9th to 13th centuries, Constantinople developed complex relationships with an emerging and later the largest and most advanced state of that time in Europe - Kiev Rus.
Constantinople played a significant role in the Kiev Rus development, culture, and politics. Byzantine constantly played Kiev, Poland, Bulgaria, and other European Nations of that time, against each other.
Near Constantinople began to decline in power. Because of the failure of the Third Crusade, self-confident western Europeans decided to again try to capture the Holy City of Jerusalem in the Fourth Crusade ; but this time their plan was to capture the Byzantine Empire as well. Inwestern armies captured Constantinople and ransacked the city for treasures.
The crusaders chose Baldwin of Flanders to be the new Byzantine Emperor; he along with other princes and the Venetians divided the Empire amongst themselves; they never made it to Jerusalem.
Rather than a thriving metropolis, Constantinople transformed into a collection of villages, and became a semi- ghost town with, as Ibn Battuta noted, sown fields within the city walls.
The city by held less than a tenth of its former population. Istanbul became the third capital of the Ottoman Empire. Mehmed had begun the siege on 6 April He had hired engineers to build cannons and bombs for the occasion.
He also acquired scholars and imams to encourage the soldiers.
Constantine valiantly refused the offer. Against their counsel, Mehmed continued to fight. The night before the final assault, he studied previous attempts to take the city to distinguish potentially successful approaches.
On the morning of 29 May the sultan ordered Adzan the call to prayer. The wall was beginning to collapse when Constantine sent a letter to the pope asking for help.By Peter Tsouras 4/13/ • HistoryNet. The “fury of the Northmen” hit the Byzantine Empire in a surprise attack on the Queen of Cities.
Byzantine Emperor Theophilus was gracious in his treatment of the two ambassadors who had arrived unexpectedly in the imperial capital, Constantinople, from the Black Sea in the year Constantine the Great reunited the Roman Empire under his sole rule in after he defeated Licinius.
This ended 20 years of civil war that broke out after the abdication of Diocletian.
The Byzantine Empire. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The very name Byzantine illustrates the misconceptions to which the empire’s history has often been subject, for its inhabitants would hardly have considered the term appropriate to themselves or to their state. Theirs was, in their view, none other than the Roman Empire, founded shortly before the beginning of the Christian era by God’s. A comprehensive history of Istanbul, Turkey—formerly Constantinople—a city at the center of world activity for more than 15 centuries. Istanbul Was Once Constantinople Search the site GO. Constantinople, from History of the Later Roman Empire, by J.B. Bury History of Constantinople from the "New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia." Monuments of Byzantium – Pantokrator Monastery of Constantinople.
Constantine would rule over the united Roman Empire from to his death in The Byzantine Empire. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. The very name Byzantine illustrates the misconceptions to which the empire’s history has often been subject, for its inhabitants would hardly have considered the term appropriate to themselves or to their state.
Theirs was, in their view, none other than the Roman Empire, founded shortly before the beginning of the Christian era by God’s. Ascending to the Ottoman throne in , Mehmed II began making preparations to reduce the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. Though the seat of Byzantine power for over a millennium, the empire had badly eroded .
Sep 04, · The Ottoman Empire was the one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history.
It was an empire inspired and sustained by Islam, and Islamic institutions. It . The History of the Renaissance World: From the Rediscovery of Aristotle to the Conquest of Constantinople [Susan Wise Bauer] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A lively and fascinating narrative history about the birth of the modern world. Beginning in the heady days just after the First Crusade.