The way of life responsibilities and the pursuit of virtue of different civilizations

By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of Indiameaning the "land of Hindus". These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas foreigners or Mlecchas barbarianswith the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma". The term Hinduism, then spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious, philosophical, and cultural traditions native to India.

The way of life responsibilities and the pursuit of virtue of different civilizations

Western political philosophy to the end of the 19th century Antiquity Although in antiquity great civilizations arose in Egypt and Mesopotamia, in the Indus Valley, and in Chinathere was little speculation about the problems of political philosophy as formulated in the West.

The Code of Hammurabi c. To be sure, the Buddhist concept of dharma social custom and dutywhich inspired the Indian emperor Ashoka in the 3rd century bce, implies a moralization of public power, and the teachings of Confucius in the 6th century bce are a code of conduct designed to stabilize society, but there is not, outside Europemuch speculation about the basis of political obligation and the purpose of the state, with both of which Western political philosophy is mainly concerned.

An authoritarian society is taken for granted, backed by religious sanctions, and a conservative and arbitrary power is generally accepted.

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In contrast to this overwhelming conservatismparalleled by the rule of custom and tribal elders in most primitive societies, the political philosophers of ancient Greece question the basis and purpose of government.

Though they do not separate political speculation from shrewd observations that today would be regarded as empirical political sciencethey created the vocabulary of Western political thought.

Plato The first elaborate work of European political philosophy is the Republic of Platoa masterpiece of insight and feeling, superbly expressed in dialogue form and probably meant for recitation.

Plato grew up during the great Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta and, like many political philosophers, tried to find remedies for prevalent political injustice and decline.

Indeed, the Republic is the first of the utopiasthough not one of the more attractive, and it is the first classic attempt of a European philosopher to moralize political life. PlatoPlato, marble portrait bust, from an original of the 4th century bce; in the Capitoline Museums, Rome.

They state the major themes of political philosophy with poetic power. The Republic is a criticism of current Hellenic politics—often an indictment. It is based upon a metaphysical act of faith, for Plato believes that a world of permanent Forms exists beyond the limitations of human experience and that morality and the good life, which the state should promote, are reflections of these ideal entities see Platonism.

The point is best made in the famous simile of the cave, in which humans are chained with their faces to the wall and their backs to the light, so that they see only the shadows of reality.

On his realist assumption, Plato regards most ordinary life as illusion and the current evils of politics as the result of the human pursuit of brute instinct. It follows that unless philosophers bear kingly rule in cities or those who are now called kings and princes become genuine and adequate philosophers, and political power and philosophy are brought together…there will be no respite from evil for cities.

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His rulers would form an elitenot responsible to the mass of the people. Thus, in spite of his high moral purpose, he has been called an enemy of the open society and the father of totalitarianism.

But he is also an anatomist of the evils of unbridled appetite and political corruption and insists on the need to use public power to moral ends. Having described his utopiaPlato turns to analyze the existing types of government in human terms with great insight. Monarchy is the best but impracticable; in oligarchies the rule of the few and the pursuit of wealth divide societies—the rich become demoralized and the poor envious, and there is no harmony in the state.

He then examines which of the current forms of government is the least difficult to live with, for the ruler, after all, is an artist who has to work within the limits of his medium.

In the Lawspurporting to be a discussion of how best to found a polis in Cretehe presents a detailed program in which a state with some 5, citizens is ruled by 37 curators of laws and a council of He had, nonetheless, stated, in the dawn of European political thought, the normative principle that the state should aim at promoting the good life and social harmony and that the rule of lawin the absence of the rule of philosopher-kings, is essential to this purpose.

The way of life responsibilities and the pursuit of virtue of different civilizations

But perfection in everything is perhaps a difficult thing. Political behaviour is here regarded as a branch of biology as well as of ethics ; in contrast to Plato, Aristotle was an empirical political philosopher. The book is composed of lecture notes and is arranged in a confusing way—a quarry of arguments and definitions of great value but hard to master.

The treatise is thus, in modern terms, a mixture of political philosophy and political science see also Aristotelianism.Virtue is the Key to True Happiness We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

The only way to attain the Universal Way is to maintain the integral virtues of the constancy, steadiness and simplicity in one’s daily life.” – Lao Tzu The four cardinal virtues, or rules for living life, can provide a framework for a life filled with inner peace and purpose.

Both Hammurabi's laws and Confucianism helped contribute to future civilizations by establishing an elaborate way of life. He felt that there should be said punishments following the eye for an eye.

The pyramids were used as houses and as tombs for dead pharaohs.3/5(2). Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia.

Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, [note 2] and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history.

The way of life responsibilities and the pursuit of virtue of different civilizations

Man quinn. STUDY. PLAY. Ethics. the quality by which the pursuit of one value is a good way to reach another value. Value Conflicts. is wrong Societies can place different emphasis on different virtues. ex greeks valued wisdom, courage and justice. Christians Value Faith, hope and charity.

Political philosophy, however, is not merely unpractical speculation, though it may give rise to highly impractical myths: it is a vitally important aspect of life, and one that, for good or evil, has had decisive results on political action, for the assumptions on which political life is conducted clearly must influence what actually happens.

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