This paper was originally presented at an international conference on Asia-Pacific security, hosted by the Tamkang School of Strategic Studies, Taiwan, in April It is reprinted here with the permission of the organizers. Japan owes both its positive and negative legacy to its longstanding ties with China.
By Wil Deac Japan in the s was a nation caught in a cultural vise. Pressure on one side came from its hermit heritage, based on complex ancient religious, military and political ideas alien to the West. On the other side there was a strong urge to rapidly modernize. That squeeze, intensified by nationalism, led first to an internal clash between moderates and radicals and, ultimately, to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
The radicals, calling for the rejection of Western ways and direct imperial rule, wanted a militaristic government based on national socialism, an Oriental echo of the Nazi movement in Germany.
The Japanese radicals looked to, and arose from, the armed forces. Their opponents were those who wanted to lead the country along a democratic, capitalistic path—the Western-oriented urban bourgeoisie and intellectuals.
Another military advantage was the fact that Japan had made its army and navy ministers more powerful than the rest of the cabinet. Co-equal with the prime minister, they had iaku joso, direct access to the throne, in an emperor-worshipping nation.
By simply refusing to name a minister, the military could force the dissolution of any civilian government it disapproved of. And, of course, the military had the organization and weapons to impose its will.
Two events led to a violent confrontation—the appearance of a nationalist government in China in and the onset of the Great Depression the following year.
The new Chinese government threatened imperialistic interests on the Asiatic mainland. One way was to cut military expenditures. On November 14,as he was boarding a train in Tokyo, Hamaguchi was shot in the stomach by a young member of the Aikokusha Patriotic Association. It took the prime minister nine months to die.
His assailant subsequently was pardoned and remained politically active even after World War II. With the civilian government frightened, and in any case limited in power, it looked as if only the emperor could rein in the freewheeling extremists.
Emperor Hirohito, who had acceded to the throne inwas not up to the task. In lateLt.
China plans to launch the heavy-lift carrier rocket Long March-9 in , said an official of China National Space Administration (CNSA) at the World Conference on Science Literacy on Tuesday. A brief history of leaving China, becoming the other, and turning Japanese. Asia's Reckoning: China, Japan, and the Fate of U.S. Power in the Pacific Century [Richard McGregor] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Financial Times Best Book of “A shrewd and knowing book.” —Robert D. Kaplan.
Kingoro Hashimoto, who seven years later would try to trigger war with Britain by shelling a Royal Navy gunboat in Chinese waters, formed the Sakurakai Cherry Society. Consisting mostly of midlevel officers, it was dedicated to establishing a military-controlled social structure in Japan.
Enraged by the failure of the October coup, a radical Buddhist priest named Nissho Inoue organized a terrorist group called Ketsumeidan Blood Brotherhood. He recruited chiefly young peasants who took an oath to assassinate national leaders they felt had either betrayed Japan or exploited the farmers.
Twenty-five days later, Takua Dan, a member of a samurai family and manager of the vast Matsui business conglomerate, was murdered as he arrived at his office by a year-old Blood Brotherhood member. Whereas civilian societies attacked individual enemies, military conspirators aimed at nothing less than instant revolution.
On Friday, May 13,five plotters met in a restaurant in the naval base town of Tsuchiura, a two-hour train ride from Tokyo. Two naval officers, an army cadet, a student and a teacher from the agricultural Native Land-Loving School put the finishing touches on plans to terrorize the civilian government and force the country under martial law; thereupon, the army could take over in the name of the emperor.
Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai, 77 years old, small, goateed and wearing a kimono, addled the revolver-wielding intruders by calmly asking them to sit down and talk. Suddenly, the second group of officers burst in.
The fatally wounded Inukai slumped to the matted floor. On their way out, the killers shot a truncheon-armed policeman who challenged them. Abandoned by the taxi-drivers who had brought them, the nine found two more cabs.
Their next target was central civilian police headquarters, but they found the building empty. One carload then drove on to military police headquarters and surrendered, and the second followed suit after detouring to toss a grenade at the Bank of Japan building. There were other explosives-throwing incidents in the capital that night.
Twenty-one naval officers and army cadets and 20 civilians were tried for the May 15 violence. Surprisingly, they received light sentences, none of which they fully served.
Lieutenant Seishi Koga, the plot leader, later explained:A brief history of leaving China, becoming the other, and turning Japanese. Japan's China policy has evolved over the past several decades within a complex Japan-US-China trilateral framework.
While the country's security strategy is grounded on its alliance with the United States, it has also pursued economic interests through trade with China. Asia's Reckoning: China, Japan, and the Fate of U.S.
Power in the Pacific Century [Richard McGregor] on schwenkreis.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
A Financial Times Best Book of “A shrewd and knowing book.” —Robert D. Kaplan. Global Opposition to U.S. Surveillance and Drones, but Limited Harm to America’s Image Chapter 4: How Asians View Each Other.
The rise of militaristic nationalism led Japan down the road to Pearl Harbor and World War II. By Wil Deac Japan in the s was a nation caught in a cult. China plans to launch the heavy-lift carrier rocket Long March-9 in , said an official of China National Space Administration (CNSA) at the World Conference on Science Literacy on Tuesday. DETROIT (AP) — Sam Reinhart and Tage Thompson scored in a seven-round shootout to give the Buffalo Sabres their ninth consecutive victory, over.
Asia is a sprawling continent with a long, contentious history. The rise of militaristic nationalism led Japan down the road to Pearl Harbor and World War II. By Wil Deac Japan in the s was a nation caught in a cult. Japan - Political developments: The LDP continued its dominance of Japanese politics until Its success in steering Japan through the difficult years of the OPEC oil crisis and the economic transition that substituted high-technology enterprises for smokestack industries in the s and ’80s, thereby restoring Japan’s international economic confidence, was not lost on the Japanese.