C N Trueman "Russification" historylearningsite. The History Learning Site, 22 May
Russia Table of Contents The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. Not only did technology and industry continue to develop more rapidly in the West, but also new, dynamic, competitive great powers appeared on the world scene: Otto von Bismarck united Germany in the s, the post-Civil War United States grew in size and strength, and a modernized Japan emerged from the Meiji Restoration of Although Russia was an expanding regional giant in Central Asia, bordering the Ottoman, Persian, British Indian, and Chinese empires, it could not generate enough capital to support rapid industrial development or to compete with advanced countries on a commercial basis.
Russia's fundamental dilemma was that accelerated domestic development risked upheaval at home, but slower progress risked full economic dependency on the faster-advancing countries to the east and west.
In fact, political ferment, particularly among the intelligentsia, accompanied the transformation of Russia's economic and social structure, but so did impressive developments in literature, music, the fine arts, and the natural sciences.
Economic Developments Throughout the last half of the nineteenth century, Russia's economy developed more slowly than did that of the major European nations to its west. Russia's population was substantially larger than those of the more developed Western countries, but the vast majority of the people lived in rural communities and engaged in relatively primitive agriculture.
Industry, in general, had greater state involvement than in Western Europe, but in selected sectors it was developing with private initiative, some of it foreign. Between andRussia's population doubled, but it remained chiefly rural well into the twentieth century.
Russia's population growth rate from to was the fastest of all the major powers except for the United States. Agriculture, which was technologically underdeveloped, remained in the hands of former serfs and former state peasants, who together constituted about four-fifths of the rural population.
Large estates of more than fifty square kilometers accounted for about 20 percent of all farmland, but few such estates were worked in efficient, large-scale units.
Small-scale peasant farming and the growth of the rural population increased the amount of land used for agricultural development, but land was used more for gardens and fields of grain and less for grazing meadows than it had been in the past.
Industrial growth was significant, although unsteady, and in absolute terms it was not extensive. Russia's industrial regions included Moscow, the central regions of European Russia, St.
By Russia had about 32, kilometers of railroads and 1. Between andannual coal production had grown about 1, percent to over 6.
The state budget had more than doubled, however, and debt expenditures had quadrupled, constituting 28 percent of official expenditures in Foreign trade was inadequate to meet the empire's needs.
Until the state introduced high industrial tariffs in the s, it could not finance trade with the West because its surpluses were insufficient to cover the debts. Reforms and Their Limits, Tsar Alexander II, who succeeded Nicholas I inwas a conservative who saw no alternative but to implement change.
Alexander initiated substantial reforms in education, the government, the judiciary, and the military. In he proclaimed the emancipation of about 20 million privately held serfs.
Local commissions, which were dominated by landlords, effected emancipation by giving land and limited freedom to the serfs. The former serfs usually remained in the village commune, but they were required to make redemption payments to the government over a period of almost fifty years.Russia was difficult to govern 2.
Problems with Tsar Nicholas’ autocratic rule 3. Bloody Sunday 4. Failure of the Revolution to bring about change 5.
Impact of WWI 6. Rasputin 7. Short term causes Describe the short term causes that led to the February Revolution 1.
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Why the Russian Revolution Matters is an inspiring and important film made by the education charity WORLDwrite.
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